General Information
    • ISSN: 1793-821X (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: J. Clean Energy Technol.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.18178/JOCET
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Haider F. Abdul Amir
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Jennifer Zeng
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: CNKIElectronic Journals Library, Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, Google Scholar, ProQuest.
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Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.
I would like to express my appreciation to all the reviewers and editors, who have been working
very hard to ensure the quality of the journal. It's my honor to work with such a wonderful team.

JOCET 2015 Vol.3(5): 336-339 ISSN: 1793-821X
DOI: 10.7763/JOCET.2015.V3.219

Increase of Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) by Antioxidant Additions

Herawati Budiastuti, Sri Widarti, and Riniati
Abstract—Biodiesel is a renewable energy, possesses high cetane number and flash points, resulting in its suitable uses in diesel machines and its safe distribution and storage, as well as low gas emission, and its function as lubricant. Disadvantages of the biodiesel include its high density and viscosity, resulting in plug and ineffective injection system, and low oxidation stability. This research studied about antioxidant additions to maintain oxidation stability of biodiesel. Induction period (IP) measuring kit, to measure oxidation stability, was constructed by using modified Rancimat principle. The best operation conditions were at temperature of 1100C and pressure of <100 Kpa/h, resulting in relation coefficient (r) of 0.996 and detection limits of 6.54 ppm of oil samples. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) used contains free fatty acids (FFA) of 86.43%. The IP of the biodiesel was only 1.7 hours. The optimum concentration of pyrogallol (PY) antioxidant added into biodiesel was 20 ppm whereas of propylgallate (PG) was 40 ppm. At these concentrations, the biodiesel IP increased to become 7.1 and 6.5 hours, respectively. Additions of these antioxidants fulfill the IP requirement of biodiesel measured by European Standard of EN 14214 (> 6 hours).

Index Terms—Antioxidant, biodiesel, oxidation stability, PFAD.

H. Budiastuti and Riniati are with the Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic State of Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail:,
S. Widarti is with the Polytechnic State of Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail:


Cite:Herawati Budiastuti, Sri Widarti, and Riniati, "Increase of Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) by Antioxidant Additions," Journal of Clean Energy Technologies vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 336-339, 2015.

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