General Information
    • ISSN: 1793-821X (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: J. Clean Energy Technol.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.18178/JOCET
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Haider F. Abdul Amir
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Jennifer Zeng
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: CNKIElectronic Journals Library, Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, Google Scholar, ProQuest.
    • E-mail:
  • Apr 25, 2022 News! JOCET Vol. 10, No. 2 is available online now.   [Click]
  • Jan 26, 2022 News! JOCET Vol. 10, No. 1 is available online now.   [Click]
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.
I would like to express my appreciation to all the reviewers and editors, who have been working
very hard to ensure the quality of the journal. It's my honor to work with such a wonderful team.

JOCET 2014 Vol.2(2): 168-170 ISSN: 1793-821X
DOI: 10.7763/JOCET.2014.V2.115

Degradation of Paracetamol and Norfloxacin in Aqueous Solution Using Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Process

Thunyalux Ratpukdi
Abstract—The removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products (paracetamol and norfloxacin) in water by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) process was studied. The effects of initial pharmaceutical concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mg/L), initial pHs (5, 7 and 9), VUV powers (30, 60 and 120 W) and bicarbonate concentrations (100 and 200 mg/L as CaCO3) were investigated. The experiments under ultraviolet (UV) condition were performed for comparative purpose. The results showed that the VUV process exhibited superior degradation performance than that by the UV process. The rates of both paracetamol and norfloxacin removals were second order reaction. Higher concentrations resulted in the decrease of pharmaceutical degradation rate. The initial pH had slight impact on pharmaceutical removal efficiency and the neutral pH showed the highest degradation efficiency. Bicarbonate obviously decreased the pharmaceutical removal .This is due to from OH• scavenging and the VUV light absorption of the bicarbonate. For the effect of VUV powers, removal efficiencies increased as the increase of VUV powers.

Index Terms—Paracetamol, Norfloxacin, PPCPs, Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV).

Thunyalux Ratpukdi is with Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand and Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Bangkok 10330, Thailand (e-mail:


Cite:Thunyalux Ratpukdi, "Degradation of Paracetamol and Norfloxacin in Aqueous Solution Using Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Process," Journal of Clean Energy Technologies vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 168-170, 2014.

Copyright © 2008-2022. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies. All rights reserved.