General Information
    • ISSN: 1793-821X (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: J. Clean Energy Technol.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.18178/JOCET
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Haider F. Abdul Amir
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Jennifer Zeng
    • Abstracting/ Indexing:  INSPEC (IET), Electronic Journals Library, Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, Google Scholar, ProQuest, CNKI.
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Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.
I would like to express my appreciation to all the reviewers and editors, who have been working
very hard to ensure the quality of the journal. It's my honor to work with such a wonderful team.

JOCET 2019 Vol.7(5): 61-71 ISSN: 1793-821X
DOI: 10.18178/JOCET.2019.7.5.511

Aging Comparison between Two Battery Cells LiFePO4 and Li(NiMnCo)O2 in Vehicle to Grid Operations

Timo A. Lehtola and Ahmad Zahedi
Abstract—The objectives of this study are to show how significantly Vehicle to Grid (V2G) systems are affecting the lifetime of the electric vehicle batteries. In V2G use, electric power is flowing from the power grid to the electric vehicle batteries and from the batteries to the power grid. Using direct real-time control of the grid operator, batteries are charged, providing V2G balance and frequency regulation to the grid. In this research, two different types of cells were used to investigate how the V2G charge limits affect the battery lifetime. Battery aging model is previously used to calculate lifetime and cost of V2G use. This research increases knowledge by comparing two different types of battery cells. Batteries are expensive and lifetime increase is one solution to reduce costs. The results indicate that battery management can optimize battery use with longer battery life. The main goal of the manuscript is to receive a longer battery life. As a result, lifetime was calculated at four years for A123 Systems’™ cells and 18.27 years for Sanyo’s™ cells. This research connects measurement data, driving data, proposed V2G use to existing battery cycle aging model. For satisfying the scheduled charging, the V2G control is switched to a smart charging control. The V2G concept is found to be as an extension of the smart grid system allowing electric vehicles to be able to inject electricity into the electricity network, acting as distributed generating systems or battery storage systems. As smart charging is an important part of electric vehicle penetration, V2G may provide an important bonus for smart charging procedures. The proposed topic is interesting and worthy of investigation since the impact of V2G operations on battery durability plays an essential role for the convenience of vehicle owners in supporting the electricity network with this kind of ancillary services. Main findings are lifetime reduction is decreased in V2G operations and a lifetime can be extended.

Index Terms—Cycle life, electric vehicle, Li-ion battery, smart charging, vehicle to grid.

T. A. Lehtola and A. Zahedi are with the James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4814, Australia (e-mail:,


Cite:Timo A. Lehtola and Ahmad Zahedi, "Aging Comparison between Two Battery Cells LiFePO4 and Li(NiMnCo)O2 in Vehicle to Grid Operations," Journal of Clean Energy Technologies vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 60-71, 2019.

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